What is the momentum range of Heed+

Dear experts

I wonder what is the range of momentum (minimum momentum) because I tried 1eV muon but it didn’t work, then I tried 1 keV electron it still didn’t work.

And if the momentum should larger than a certain value, say 100 keV, then how does garfield++ simulate the secondary ionization? Most of the first ionized electrons should definitely less than 1 keV level.

So I believe that garfield++ is using different method to simulate first ionization (Heed+ calculate cross section?) and secondary ionization (Track::SetW() with some model?)?

@hschindl can help you with this question.

Indeed, Heed uses a different algorithm for simulation delta electrons than for simulating the ionisation by the primary charged particle. You can use TransportDeltaElectron if you want to simulate delta electrons.
The PAI model (which is used in Heed for calculating the differential energy loss cross-section of the primary charged particle) is applicable if the particle velocity is large compared to the velocity of the atomic electrons.

Ah, so it’s like:
For primary ionization, PAI model is used
For delta electrons, PAI model is used if particle velocity is large

Then what model is used when delta electrons are slow and what is the momentum range of primary particles?

No, for delta electrons Heed always uses a phenomenological algorithm. You can find more details in this paper and in the attached set of slides.

talk_sl.pdf (96.8 KB)

Regarding the momentum range: as a guideline I would say the particle energy has to be large compared to the particle mass.

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